mgmt1110_summer_course_2013

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mgmt1110_summer_course_2013 [2013/06/13 01:24]
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 Biases : Biases :
 +  * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Prejudice|Prejudice]] and stereotyping,​ which might lead to a [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Self-fulfilling_prophecy|self-fulfilling prophecy]] - how we form first impressions (when I asked you to guess who I am and what I like based on my appearance alone, we concluded looks can be decieving and we should be careful to try and overcome those biases)
   * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Decoy_effect|The decoy effect]] (the example we did with The Economist website from Dan Ariely).   * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Decoy_effect|The decoy effect]] (the example we did with The Economist website from Dan Ariely).
-  * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Availability_heuristic|Availability Heuristic]] ​ (the famous versus anonymous brands revenues ​clas example).+  * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Availability_heuristic|Availability Heuristic]] ​ (the famous versus anonymous brands revenues ​class example).
   * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Representativeness_heuristic|Representative Heuristic]] (MBA student'​s undergraduate class example).   * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Representativeness_heuristic|Representative Heuristic]] (MBA student'​s undergraduate class example).
   * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Recall_bias|Ease of Recall Bias]] (cause of deaths in the US class example).   * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Recall_bias|Ease of Recall Bias]] (cause of deaths in the US class example).
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   * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Cognitive_dissonance|Cognitive Dissonance]] ​ (we watched a video and discussed cheating/​ethical-dilemmas and everyday life class examples).   * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Cognitive_dissonance|Cognitive Dissonance]] ​ (we watched a video and discussed cheating/​ethical-dilemmas and everyday life class examples).
   * [[Forer Fallacy of Personal Validation inclass experiment]] (the fake handwriting personality assessment we ran in class)   * [[Forer Fallacy of Personal Validation inclass experiment]] (the fake handwriting personality assessment we ran in class)
-  * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Hindsight_bias|Hindsight Bias]] +  * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Hindsight_bias|Hindsight Bias]] ​(I gave you a research finding and showed you that no matter what the research finding was you didn't think it was surprising) 
-  * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Confirmation_bias|Confirmation bias]] +  * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Confirmation_bias|Confirmation bias]] ​(people tend to answer with "​yes",​ people find supporting evidence to things they already believe in) 
-  * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​False-consensus_effect|False Consensus Bias]] +  * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​False-consensus_effect|False Consensus Bias]] ​(we showed that we tend to perceive ourselves to hold the views of the majority, even when our views regarding politics and taste are in the minority) 
 +  * [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​In-group_favoritism|Ingroup Outgroup Bias]] ([[http://​mgto.org/​in-group-out-group-bias-in-class-experiments-2/​|read my post for what we did in class regarding dark and bright t-shirts]]) 
 +  * Selfish irrational behavior, sometimes called [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Tragedy_of_the_commons|Tragedy of the Commons]] ([[http://​www.abacon.com/​psychsite/​tool_social.html|we showed this in class by students taking all the candy on the table even when I said I would double the number of candies at the end]]) ​
 ===== Answering the exam/quiz questions ===== ===== Answering the exam/quiz questions =====
  
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   * Common motivation mistakes   * Common motivation mistakes
  
 +__Leadership__
 +  * Differences between managers and leaders.
 +  * 5 sources of Power.
 +  * Leadership theories - trait, behavior and contingent models.
 +  * People oriented versus task oriented. ​
 +  * Ohio State Model - consideration versus initiating structure.
 +  * Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
 +  * Transactional & Transformational Leadership
  
 ===== Class projects ===== ===== Class projects =====
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 ==== Please note ==== ==== Please note ====
-  - Group projects will be submitted through Turnitin. Make sure you do your own original work, be careful to cite and quote appropriately and give credit to sources when credit is due. We will not tolerate any form of plagiarism. ​+  - Group projects will be submitted ​through LMES afterwhich we'll process all the submissions ​through Turnitin. Make sure you do your own original work, be careful to cite and quote appropriately and give credit to sources when credit is due. We will not tolerate any form of plagiarism. ​
   - Group projects are a group effort. In the last page in your project you are asked to detail what each member has contributed to the project. Also, you will be asked to evaluate your group mates and indicate the effort contributed. I expect a fairly equal contribution from all group members. If one or more of your team are not putting in their part, please do let me know.   - Group projects are a group effort. In the last page in your project you are asked to detail what each member has contributed to the project. Also, you will be asked to evaluate your group mates and indicate the effort contributed. I expect a fairly equal contribution from all group members. If one or more of your team are not putting in their part, please do let me know.
  
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   * Takeover of Cadbury: Is it really such a sweet deal?   * Takeover of Cadbury: Is it really such a sweet deal?
   * Can Alibaba open the sesame door for sustainable wealth and glory?   * Can Alibaba open the sesame door for sustainable wealth and glory?
- 
  
  
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 A temporary archive with all the PDFs of the articles below can be found on the MGMT1110 LMES course system. A temporary archive with all the PDFs of the articles below can be found on the MGMT1110 LMES course system.
-Still, if you want to look those up or download these articles yourself, here are the links. 
- 
-=== Amazon === 
- 
-  * http://​money.cnn.com/​2011/​09/​27/​technology/​amazon_publishing/​index.htm 
-  * http://​www.businessweek.com/​magazine/​amazons-hit-man-01252012.html 
-  * http://​www.businessweek.com/​articles/​2012-06-01/​at-amazons-very-first-e-book-author-lunch 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​918911595/​13715D8D7874027DB26/​1?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​898492771/​13715D8D7874027DB26/​3?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​910369357/​13715D8D7874027DB26/​19?​accountid=29018 
- 
-=== Zynga === 
- 
-  * http://​www.reuters.com/​article/​2011/​12/​15/​us-ipo-zynga-idUSTRE7BD2HB20111215 
-  * http://​knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/​article.cfm?​articleid=2822 
-  * http://​money.cnn.com/​2012/​05/​18/​markets/​facebook-social-media-stocks/​index.htm 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​911118966/​13715D381457F2486D0/​11?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​921405482/​13715D689761A7FA7AD/​1?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​925673272/​13715D689761A7FA7AD/​3?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​896648045/​13715D689761A7FA7AD/​5?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​897296333/​13715D689761A7FA7AD/​6?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​919838628/​13715D689761A7FA7AD/​13?​accountid=29018 
- 
-=== Starbucks === 
- 
-  * http://​www.time.com/​time/​magazine/​article/​0,​9171,​1725973-1,​00.html 
-  * http://​www.businessweek.com/​ap/​2012-03/​D9TL3PF00.htm 
-  * http://​money.cnn.com/​2012/​03/​19/​news/​companies/​starbucks-juice/​index.htm 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=71732748&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=60260234&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=67534313&​site=ehost-live 
- 
-=== HP === 
- 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=75259530&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​www.businessweek.com/​articles/​2012-03-23/​how-exactly-does-hp-invest-in-the-future 
-  * http://​www.theglobeandmail.com/​report-on-business/​international-news/​global-exchange/​financial-times/​hewlett-packard-time-to-rebuild/​article2348641/​ 
-  * http://​money.cnn.com/​2012/​05/​23/​technology/​hp-earnings/​index.htm 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​893914646/​1371A970D634069BCA4/​3?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​1015435715/​1371A970D634069BCA4/​4?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=69628642&​site=ehost-live 
- 
-=== Yahoo === 
- 
-  * http://​edition.cnn.com/​2012/​05/​20/​business/​alibaba-yahoo-deal/​index.html 
-  * http://​www.businessweek.com/​articles/​2012-05-08/​can-yahoo-hang-on-in-the-ad-market 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​894715239/​fulltext/​1371125E09016911CF9/​9?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​908705271/​1371A9AD73C3B30FB93/​1?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​964042752/​1371A9AD73C3B30FB93/​2?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​900151374/​1371A9AD73C3B30FB93/​9?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​900756593/​1371A9AD73C3B30FB93/​10?​accountid=29018 
- 
- 
-=== Facebook versus Google === 
- 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=67210853&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=65053165&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=70445741&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=73981358&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​874006089/​1371A9DA0B773DEA2A/​2?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​923855401/​1371A9DA0B773DEA2A/​49?​accountid=29018 
- 
- 
-=== Intel smartphones === 
- 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=48538836&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=70907236&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​888312263/​1371AA81C1560FE6CE9/​1?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​898992741/​1371AA81C1560FE6CE9/​6?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=65916390&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=71943442&​site=ehost-live 
- 
- 
-=== Nokia === 
- 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​900588001/​13715CA85135874A999/​13?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​903657019/​13715CA85135874A999/​2?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​900594283/​13715CA85135874A999/​3?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​900151319/​13715CA85135874A999/​6?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​900453926/​13715CA85135874A999/​20?​accountid=29018 
- 
-=== Sony === 
- 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​957815709/​13715CD66997F11F001/​1?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​1000400566/​13715CD66997F11F001/​8?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​992884047/​13715CD66997F11F001/​23?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​1012125645/​13715CD66997F11F001/​32?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=67346593&​site=ehost-live 
- 
-=== Hyundai === 
- 
-  * http://​money.cnn.com/​2010/​01/​04/​autos/​hyundai_competition.fortune/​index.htm 
-  * http://​www.businessweek.com/​magazine/​having-thrived-in-america-hyundai-takes-on-europe-01262012.html 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​874278172/​1371728B1D1365789F7/​2?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=58722716&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=70840087&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​874278172/​1371AB0A13B4D56E57/​1?​accountid=29018 
- 
-=== RIM === 
- 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​918472941/​1371721125146902456/​1?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=70909083&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=67210844&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​918477710/​13717254BB43E98A0B4/​17?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​914571992/​13717254BB43E98A0B4/​19?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​www.canadianbusiness.com/​article/​66599--how-management-has-failed-at-rim 
-  * http://​www.newyorker.com/​talk/​financial/​2012/​02/​13/​120213ta_talk_surowiecki 
- 
-=== Kraft === 
- 
-  * http://​findarticles.com/​p/​articles/​mi_m3301/​is_12_112/​ai_n58575575/​ 
-  * http://​online.wsj.com/​article/​SB10001424052702304636404577295412202718658.html 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​932141935/​1371AB343A9321D841F/​1?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​881105826/​1371AB45EAB6E8FAEE2/​1?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.proquest.com/​docview/​881446109/​1371AB45EAB6E8FAEE2/​2?​accountid=29018 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=65529743&​site=ehost-live 
-  * http://​search.ebscohost.com/​login.aspx?​direct=true&​db=buh&​AN=65529744&​site=ehost-live 
  
  
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 We actually discussed this in class very briefly. Generally, it has long been assumed that a strong organizational culture leads to better performance,​ but in recent years this view has began to change as the environment changes more rapidly. An organization with a strong culture is also more rigid and more difficult to change. If the environment needs flexibility and adjustability,​ weak organizational cultures may be able to adapt faster. Also, weak organizational cultures benefit from having more diversity, which ASA processes in strong cultures are less accepting towards. We actually discussed this in class very briefly. Generally, it has long been assumed that a strong organizational culture leads to better performance,​ but in recent years this view has began to change as the environment changes more rapidly. An organization with a strong culture is also more rigid and more difficult to change. If the environment needs flexibility and adjustability,​ weak organizational cultures may be able to adapt faster. Also, weak organizational cultures benefit from having more diversity, which ASA processes in strong cultures are less accepting towards.
 +
 +==== Consequences of a weak organizational culture ====
 +
 +**Q: I asked myself: "What are the implications of weak organizational culture?"​. I came up with: Miscommunication between members of organization,​ less teamwork, ASA framework does not work effectively resulting in unsuitable workers in the organization,​ low motivation, higher turnover. Is that correct? Is there anything to add?**
 +
 +Some other students asked about this as well. Generally, you’re right, weak organizational culture is traditionally associated with some of what you mentioned – there is more diversity, possibly more conflict and misunderstandings,​ less commitment, less bonding, lower motivation and possibly higher negative consequences. However, like everything in life (and especially management) we’ve come to accept that all things have a combination of good and bad. As for possible good points about weak cultures - this answer I gave on the WIKI provides a direction : http://​wiki.mgto.org/​mgmt1110_summer_course_2013#​advantages_of_a_weak_organizational_culture ​
  
 ==== Three components of Organizational Culture ==== ==== Three components of Organizational Culture ====
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 Yes, this is a delicate difference, but there'​s more to it than just the conscious level. I think that some of the examples in the course slides could be especially confusing, like the Google example. Generally, assumptions are taken for granted and reflect facts and statements about how the world operates ("the earth is round"​),​ values are things that are considered important ("the earth should be protected and preserved"​). When you analyze a case, the most important thing for you is to show how you made your analysis and explain why you thought something is a value and something is a shared assumption. If your reasoning is logical and makes sense and uses the definitions,​ then I'll accept it. As you can see in many of our in-class exercises I emphasize analytical skills over 'right or wrong'​. Yes, this is a delicate difference, but there'​s more to it than just the conscious level. I think that some of the examples in the course slides could be especially confusing, like the Google example. Generally, assumptions are taken for granted and reflect facts and statements about how the world operates ("the earth is round"​),​ values are things that are considered important ("the earth should be protected and preserved"​). When you analyze a case, the most important thing for you is to show how you made your analysis and explain why you thought something is a value and something is a shared assumption. If your reasoning is logical and makes sense and uses the definitions,​ then I'll accept it. As you can see in many of our in-class exercises I emphasize analytical skills over 'right or wrong'​.
 +
 +==== Share assumptions and shared values ====
 +
 +**Q: Can shared assumptions also at the same time be shared values (e.g. the example of "​safety"​ at an engineering firm: This might on the one hand be an assumption but maybe they also promote it as one of their key values)?**
 +
 +First, see my answer here - http://​wiki.mgto.org/​mgmt1110_summer_course_2013#​three_components_of_organizational_culture
 +
 +So, yes, safety is a general term that can serve as a basis for both share assumption and values, but the framing might be a bit different. For a value, it would be "​safety is important to us" and would be compared to and discussed with other values. When the importance of safety becomes so ingrained in the culture that it is taken for granted and no longer needs to be articulated and discussed, it becomes a shared assumption "there is no work without safety"​. ​
  
 ==== Personal Values structure ==== ==== Personal Values structure ====
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 Briefly, we accept very vague and general statements about ourselves in fortune telling and handwriting assessments as revealing and accurate when in fact they'​re constructed in a way that aims to be true for anyone so that people feel self-validated. I gave students a personality assessment they thought was especially tailored for them, but in facy they all had the same  vague and general statements. Most of the students thought this is a very good tool for personality prediction and were surprised that in fact all the students got the same analysis. Briefly, we accept very vague and general statements about ourselves in fortune telling and handwriting assessments as revealing and accurate when in fact they'​re constructed in a way that aims to be true for anyone so that people feel self-validated. I gave students a personality assessment they thought was especially tailored for them, but in facy they all had the same  vague and general statements. Most of the students thought this is a very good tool for personality prediction and were surprised that in fact all the students got the same analysis.
 +
 +==== People oriented leadership and relationship-oriented leadership ====
 +
 +**Q: Is there any difference between the people-oriented leadership style mentioned on page 5 and relationship-oriented leadership on page 22?**
 +
 +Good question. I know this is confusing, and I'm very glad you asked this so I can clarify.
 +
 +I'm not entirely sure why, but academic researchers sometimes like to reinvent the wheel by calling similar things in a different name. I think you noticed that "​people-oriented leadership"​ from the "​Behavioral studies"​ theories in the 1940s, the "​Consideration"​ in the Ohio State Model and "​relationship oriented"​ in Fiedler'​s contingency model are basically about the same thing. The main different between them is that they belong to different theories. Some would argue that the more recent "​transformational leadership"​ from Bass (1985) is also based on similar ideas.
 +
 +So, basically, if we try to organize all the terminology in all the theories, we'll have two major categories :
 +  - people-oriented leadership / consideration / relationship-oriented / transformational-leadership : emphasizing leading through interacting and influencing people.
 +  - task-oriented leadership / initiating structure / task-oriented / transactional-leadership : emphasizing structure, task accomplishment,​ defining goals etc.
 +
 +IMPORTANT - though the leadership categories have similarities,​ the different theories have very different assumptions regarding those categories :
 +  * Trait theories (20s) - you're either one or the other (an introvert or extrovert). Certain traits are better than others
 +  * Behavioral studies (Ohio State model, 40s) - It's good to have a dynamic leader that can apply both types of leadership. The impact of the context is not clear.
 +  * Fiedler'​ Contingency model (60s) - the leadership style is fixed, leaders don't change, but you need to choose the right leader for the right context or change the environment to fit the leader.
 +  * Bass Transformational leadership (80s) - transformational leadership is generally better than transactional leadership. Leaders can change and adapt, and they need to be able to move from transactional to transformational and combine the two according to the followers and the context.
 +
 +==== Contingency theories and leadership stability ====
 +
 +**Q: On page 15, it states that contingency studies are about the adaption of leaders to the immediate situation , however,on page 18, it states that leadership style is fixed and very stable so we need to change to situation to fit the leader.**
 +
 +Good catch, thanks for pointing that out. It really shows that you're paying attention to detail and that's VERY important.
 +
 +So, yes, Fiedler assumes leadership styles are fixed, but more recent contingency models like Bass Transformational Leadership and other more modern theories mentioned in the book have changed the Fiedler'​s model to assume that leaders can and should adapt to the situation. So, if you're referring to Fiedler'​s model - leadership style is fixed. If you're referring to more recent contingency models - leaders can and should adapt to the context.
 +
 +==== ASA model for companies ====
 +
 +** Q: How am I supposed to understand the point "self selection bias - companies want to be acquired by Google"?​ (Organizational Culture Slide 72)**
 +
 +It’s a bit like with the ASA, but on the organizational level. Companies that want to be bought by Google and integrated into the company already know the Google culture and want to be part of it. Companies that don’t like the Google way wouldn’t try to get Google’s attention but would prefer other companies with a more fitting culture.
 + 
 +==== How would most people act in an ethical dilemma? ====
 +
 +**Q: How would you answer the question provided in one of the homework assignments about how would most people act in an ethical dilemma situation?​**
 +
 +I would answer truthfully how I think others would act. This is for me to see that you're giving this some thought and understand how you see the world. This is a good example for an answer that you can NOT get wrong, what ever you answer me, I will accept - as long as you do answer and explain in a way that makes sense. ​
 +
 +==== Traits and values ====
 +
 +**Q: How would you define "​trait"​. Under trait content it says "​enduring dispositions"​ (slide 37). How is this to be understood? In management terminology is "​traits = personality"?​ If yes, are values also part of personality or not?**
 +
 +Believe it or not, this is a very hot topic for discussion in the personality research literature and at the moment I have an academic paper under review with two other colleagues in the UK and the US that aims to answer this question. In short - traits are dimensions of personality and values are different from personality traits, though both are part of a generalized model of the "​self"​.
 +
 +==== Personality traits taxonomies ====
 +
 +**Q: Can you give me three examples of personality traits? How about the dimensions of the MBTI, are they traits: extroversion,​ sensing, judging,​...?​**
 +
 +Big five is the important personality taxonomy to know. MBTI is another attempt of a different type of taxonomy for personality,​ and it is NOT well accepted by researchers since it has a problem with validity (though many organizations seem to like it for its simplicity). Nowadays, most of the personality researchers follow the big-five, which is why I mainly focused on that in class. We mentioned a few other traits in class, but only very briefly as they require more discussion that goes beyond an intro class - Locus of Control, Need for Power, etc.
  
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