Wiki by Gilad Feldman.
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Scale by Trandis & Gelfand (1998, JPSP).
Whereas individualism and collectivism are often treated as constituting two distinct cultural patterns, Triandis ( 1990, 1995) suggested that there are many kinds of individualism and collec- tivism. For instance, he argued that American individualism is different from Swedish individualism; likewise, the collectivism of the Israeli kibbutz is different from Korean collectivism. More specifically, in HI, people want to be unique and distinct from groups, are likely to say “I want to do my own thing,” and are highly self-reliant, but they are not especially interested in becoming distinguished or in having high status. In VI, people often want to become distinguished and acquire status, and they do this in individual competitions with others. They are likely to say “I want to be the best.” In HC, people see themselves as being similar to others (e.g., one person, one vote) and em- phasize common goals with others, interdependence, and socia- bility, but they do not submit easily to authority. In VC, people emphasize the integrity of the in-group, are willing to sacrifice their personal goals for the sake of in-group goals, and support competitions of their in-groups with out-groups. If in-group authorities want them to act in ways that benefit the in-group but are extremely distasteful to them, they submit to the will of these authorities.
- I'd rather depend on myself than others.
- I rely on myself most of the time; I rarely rely on others.
- I often do “my own thing.”
- My personal identity, independent of others, is very important to me.
- It is important that I do my job better than others.
- Winning is everything.
- Competition is the law of nature.
- When another person does better than I do, I get tense and aroused.
- If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud.
- The well-being of my coworkers is important to me.
- To me, pleasure is spending time with others.
- I feel good when I cooperate with others.
- Parents and children must stay together as much as possible.
- It is my duty to take care of my family, even when I have to sacrifice what I want.
- Family members should stick together, no matter what sacrifices are required.
- It is important to me that I respect the decisions made by my groups.