Horizontal-Vertical Individualism-Collectivism

Trandis & Gelfand

Scale by Trandis & Gelfand (1998, JPSP).

Whereas individualism and collectivism are often treated as constituting two distinct cultural patterns, Triandis ( 1990, 1995) suggested that there are many kinds of individualism and collec- tivism. For instance, he argued that American individualism is different from Swedish individualism; likewise, the collectivism of the Israeli kibbutz is different from Korean collectivism. More specifically, in HI, people want to be unique and distinct from groups, are likely to say “I want to do my own thing,” and are highly self-reliant, but they are not especially interested in becoming distinguished or in having high status. In VI, people often want to become distinguished and acquire status, and they do this in individual competitions with others. They are likely to say “I want to be the best.” In HC, people see themselves as being similar to others (e.g., one person, one vote) and em- phasize common goals with others, interdependence, and socia- bility, but they do not submit easily to authority. In VC, people emphasize the integrity of the in-group, are willing to sacrifice their personal goals for the sake of in-group goals, and support competitions of their in-groups with out-groups. If in-group authorities want them to act in ways that benefit the in-group but are extremely distasteful to them, they submit to the will of these authorities.

The Items

Horizontal individualism

  1. I'd rather depend on myself than others.
  2. I rely on myself most of the time; I rarely rely on others.
  3. I often do “my own thing.”
  4. My personal identity, independent of others, is very important to me.

Vertical individualism

  1. It is important that I do my job better than others.
  2. Winning is everything.
  3. Competition is the law of nature.
  4. When another person does better than I do, I get tense and aroused.

Horizontal collectivism

  1. If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud.
  2. The well-being of my coworkers is important to me.
  3. To me, pleasure is spending time with others.
  4. I feel good when I cooperate with others.

Vertical collectivism

  1. Parents and children must stay together as much as possible.
  2. It is my duty to take care of my family, even when I have to sacrifice what I want.
  3. Family members should stick together, no matter what sacrifices are required.
  4. It is important to me that I respect the decisions made by my groups.

Shavitt

Horizontal individualism

  1. I prefer to be direct and forthright when I talk with people (HI).
  2. One should live one’s life independently of others (HI).
  3. What happens to me is my own doing (HI).
  4. I enjoy being unique and different from others in many ways (HI).
  5. I often do “my own thing” (HI).
  6. I am a unique individual (HI).
  7. I like my privacy (HI).
  8. When I succeed, it is usually because of my abilities (HI).

Vertical individualism

  1. Winning is everything (VI).
  2. It annoys me when other people perform better than I do (VI).
  3. It is important to me that I do my job better than others (VI).
  4. I enjoy working in situations involving competition with others (VI).
  5. Competition is the law of nature (VI).
  6. When another person does better than I do, I get tense and aroused (VI).
  7. Without competition, it is not possible to have a good society (VI).
  8. Some people emphasize winning; I am not one of them (VI—reverse-scored).

Horizontal collectivism

  1. My happiness depends very much on the happiness of those around me (HC).
  2. It is important for me to maintain harmony within my group (HC).
  3. I like sharing little things with my neighbors (HC).
  4. The well-being of my coworkers is important to me (HC).
  5. If a relative were in financial difficulty, I would help within my means (HC).
  6. If a coworker gets a prize, I would feel proud (HC).
  7. To me, pleasure is spending time with others (HC).
  8. I think cooperation in the workplace is more important than competition (HC).
  9. I think it is important that everyone has equal access to healthcare (HC).
  10. I feel good when I cooperate with others (HC).

Vertical collectivism

  1. I would do what would please my family, even if I detested that activity (VC).
  2. I usually sacrifice my self-interest for the benefit of my group (VC).
  3. We should keep our aging parents with us at home (VC).
  4. Children should feel honored if their parents receive a distinguished award (VC).
  5. I would sacrifice an activity that I enjoy very much if my family did not approve of it (VC).
  6. Children should be taught to place duty before pleasure (VC).
  7. I hate to disagree with others in my group (VC).
  8. Before taking a major trip, I consult with most members of my family and many friends (VC).

WIKI Discussion

horizontal-vertical_individualism-collectivism.txt · Last modified: 2014/09/09 02:58 by filination
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