Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ)

From Schwartz etal. (2001, JCCP ; "Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement") :

The PVQ is designed to be more concrete than the SVS yet to measure the same 10-value constructs. […]

PVQ. Two objectives guided development of the Portrait Values Questionnaire. First, it should be more concrete and less cognitively complex than the SVS, hence usable with pop- ulations for which the SVS was apparently not suitable. Second, it should differ substantially from the SVS in its format and judgment task to provide an independent test of the theory of value content and structure. […]

The PVQ and SVS methods for measuring value priorities differ in several notable ways:

  1. The PVQ measures values indirectly; the SVS elicits direct, self-conscious reports of values. The PVQ obtains judgments of the similarity of another person to the self; the SVS asks for rat- ings of the importance of values as guiding principles in one’s life. Thus, the respondents’ judg- ment task is quite different.
  2. The stimuli in the PVQ are persons, portrayed in terms of their goals, aspirations, and wishes; the stimuli in the SVS are abstract, context-free values. Respondents who complete both the PVQ and the SVS describe the PVQ as more concrete and context bound.
  3. The SVS uses partially labeled, 9-point numerical response scales, including positive and nega- tive numbers. This may be problematic for respondents unfamiliar with numerical scales or negative numbers and for those with limited numeracy skills. The PVQ asks respondents to check one of six labeled boxes.

Thus, the PVQ requires fewer fine distinctions and does not require transforming judgments into numbers.

Relevant citation :

Schwartz SH, Melech G, Lehrnami A, Burgess S, Harris M, Owens V. 2001. Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 32:519-42

The Items

See attached files -

Instructions : Scale on “HOW MUCH LIKE YOU IS THIS PERSON?” (should go from 6 to 1, 6 appearing closest to the description):

  • 6 - Very much like me
  • 5 - like me
  • 4 - some- what like me
  • 3 - a little like me
  • 2 - not like me
  • 1 - not like me at all

Male version

Here we briefly describe some people. Please read each description and think about how much each person is or is not like you. Put an X in the box to the right that shows how much the person in the description is like you.

  1. Thinking up new ideas and being creative is important to him. He likes to do things in his own original way.
  2. It is important to him to be rich. He wants to have a lot of money and expensive things.
  3. He thinks it is important that every person in the world be treated equally. He believes everyone should have equal opportunities in life.
  4. It's very important to him to show his abilities. He wants people to admire what he does.
  5. It is important to him to live in secure surroundings. He avoids anything that might endanger his safety.
  6. He thinks it is important to do lots of different things in life. He always looks for new things to try.
  7. He believes that people should do what they're told. He thinks people should follow rules at all times, even when no-one is watching.
  8. It is important to him to listen to people who are different from him. Even when he disagrees with them, he still wants to understand them.
  9. He thinks it's important not to ask for more than what you have. He believes that people should be satisfied with what they have.
  10. He seeks every chance he can to have fun. It is important to him to do things that give him pleasure.
  11. It is important to him to make his own decisions about what he does. He likes to be free to plan and to choose his activities for himself.
  12. It's very important to him to help the people around him. He wants to care for their well-being.
  13. Being very successful is important to him. He likes to impress other people.
  14. It is very important to him that his country be safe. He thinks the state must be on watch against threats from within and without.
  15. He likes to take risks. He is always looking for adventures.
  16. It is important to him always to behave properly. He wants to avoid doing anything people would say is wrong.
  17. It is important to him to be in charge and tell others what to do. He wants people to do what he says.
  18. It is important to him to be loyal to his friends. He wants to devote himself to people close to him.
  19. He strongly believes that people should care for nature. Looking after the environment is important to him.
  20. Religious belief is important to him. He tries hard to do what his religion requires.
  21. It is important to him that things be organized and clean. He really does not like things to be a mess.
  22. He thinks it's important to be interested in things. He likes to be curious and to try to understand all sorts of things.
  23. He believes all the worlds’ people should live in harmony. Promoting peace among all groups in the world is important to him.
  24. He thinks it is important to be ambitious. He wants to show how capable he is.
  25. He thinks it is best to do things in traditional ways. It is important to him to keep up the customs he has learned.
  26. Enjoying life’s pleasures is important to him. He likes to ‘spoil’ himself.
  27. It is important to him to respond to the needs of others. He tries to support those he knows.
  28. He believes he should always show respect to his parents and to older people. It is important to him to be obedient.
  29. He wants everyone to be treated justly, even people he doesn’t know. It is important to him to protect the weak in society.
  30. He likes surprises. It is important to him to have an exciting life.
  31. He tries hard to avoid getting sick. Staying healthy is very important to him.
  32. Getting ahead in life is important to him. He strives to do better than others.
  33. Forgiving people who have hurt him is important to him. He tries to see what is good in them and not to hold a grudge.
  34. It is important to him to be independent. He likes to rely on himself.
  35. Having a stable government is important to him. He is concerned that the social order be protected.
  36. It is important to him to be polite to other people all the time. He tries never to disturb or irritate others.
  37. He really wants to enjoy life. Having a good time is very important to him.
  38. It is important to him to be humble and modest. He tries not to draw attention to himself.
  39. He always wants to be the one who makes the decisions. He likes to be the leader.
  40. It is important to him to adapt to nature and to fit into it. He believes that people should not change nature.

Female version

Here we briefly describe some people. Please read each description and think about how much each person is or is not like you. Put an X in the box to the right that shows how much the person in the description is like you.

  1. Thinking up new ideas and being creative is important to her. She likes to do things in her own original way.
  2. It is important to her to be rich. She wants to have a lot of money and expensive things.
  3. She thinks it is important that every person in the world be treated equally. She believes everyone should have equal opportunities in life.
  4. It's very important to her to show her abilities. She wants people to admire what she does.
  5. It is important to her to live in secure surroundings. She avoids anything that might endanger her safety.
  6. She thinks it is important to do lots of different things in life. She always looks for new things to try.
  7. She believes that people should do what they're told. She thinks people should follow rules at all times, even when no-one is watching.
  8. It is important to her to listen to people who are different from her. Even when she disagrees with them, she still wants to understand them.
  9. She thinks it's important not to ask for more than what you have. She believes that people should be satisfied with what they have.
  10. She seeks every chance she can to have fun. It is important to her to do things that give her pleasure.
  11. It is important to her to make her own decisions about what she does. She likes to be free to plan and to choose her activities for herself.
  12. It's very important to her to help the people around her. She wants to care for their well-being.
  13. Being very successful is important to her. She likes to impress other people.
  14. It is very important to her that her country be safe. She thinks the state must be on watch against threats from within and without.
  15. She likes to take risks. She is always looking for adventures.
  16. It is important to her always to behave properly. She wants to avoid doing anything people would say is wrong.
  17. It is important to her to be in charge and tell others what to do. She wants people to do what she says.
  18. It is important to her to be loyal to her friends. She wants to devote herself to people close to her.
  19. She strongly believes that people should care for nature. Looking after the environment is important to her.
  20. Religious belief is important to herm. She tries hard to do what her religion requires.
  21. It is important to her that things be organized and clean. She really does not like things to be a mess.
  22. She thinks it's important to be interested in things. She likes to be curious and to try to understand all sorts of things.
  23. She believes all the worlds’ people should live in harmony. Promoting peace among all groups in the world is important to her.
  24. She thinks it is important to be ambitious. She wants to show how capable she is.
  25. She thinks it is best to do things in traditional ways. It is important to her to keep up the customs she has learned.
  26. Enjoying life’s pleasures is important to her. She likes to ‘spoil’ herself.
  27. It is important to her to respond to the needs of others. She tries to support those she knows.
  28. She believes she should always show respect to her parents and to older people. It is important to her to be obedient.
  29. She wants everyone to be treated justly, even people she doesn’t know. It is important to her to protect the weak in society.
  30. She likes surprises. It is important to her to have an exciting life.
  31. She tries hard to avoid getting sick. Staying healthy is very important to her.
  32. Getting ahead in life is important to her. She strives to do better than others.
  33. Forgiving people who have hurt her is important to her. She tries to see what is good in them and not to hold a grudge.
  34. It is important to her to be independent. She likes to rely on herself.
  35. Having a stable government is important to her. She is concerned that the social order be protected.
  36. It is important to her to be polite to other people all the time. She tries never to disturb or irritate others.
  37. She really wants to enjoy life. Having a good time is very important to her.
  38. It is important to her to be humble and modest. She tries not to draw attention to herself.
  39. She always wants to be the one who makes the decisions. She likes to be the leader.
  40. It is important to her to adapt to nature and to fit into it. She believes that people should not change nature.

Coding key

Individual Level

  • Conformity - 7,16,28,36
  • Tradition - 9,20,25,38
  • Benevolence - 12,18,27,33
  • Universalism - 3,8,19,23,29,40
  • Self-Direction - 1,11,22,34
  • Stimulation - 6,15,30
  • Hedonism - 10,26,37
  • Achievement - 4,13,24,32
  • Power - 2,17,39
  • Security - 5,14,21,31,35

SPSS Syntax

Adopted and adjusted from code for work on MyType.

Calculating value categories and dimensions

* if you ran female and male versions separately, as you should, this loop would combine them.
DO REPEAT  
   s = pvqmale_1 to pvqmale_40 / 
   t = PVQfemale_1 to PVQfemale_40 /
   z = pvq_1 TO pvq_40.
COMPUTE z = (~missing(s))*s+(~missing(t))*t.
END REPEAT.
exec.

*Cleaning PVQ data to see if any scores were used too often.
COUNT C1=pvq_1 to pvq_40(1).
COUNT C2=pvq_1 to pvq_40(2).
COUNT C3=pvq_1 to pvq_40(3).
COUNT C4=pvq_1 to pvq_40(4).
COUNT C5=pvq_1 to pvq_40(5).
COUNT C6=pvq_1 to pvq_40(6).
COUNT C8=pvq_1 to pvq_40(SYSMIS).
do IF (C1 GE 25 OR C2 GE 25 OR C3 GE 25 OR C4 GE 25
        OR C5 GE 25 OR C6 GE 25 OR C8 GE 15).
compute i=1 .
else .
compute i=2.
end if.
freq var=i.
exe.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_$=(i=2).
VARIABLE LABELS filter_$ 'i=2 (FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMATS filter_$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_$.
EXECUTE.

** computing indexes of value types. These will be used in regressions ***

* compute PVQ scores.
compute Pconformity=mean(PVQ_7, PVQ_16, PVQ_28, PVQ_36).
compute Ptradition=mean(PVQ_9, PVQ_20, PVQ_25, PVQ_38).
compute Pbenov=mean(PVQ_12, PVQ_18, PVQ_27, PVQ_33).
compute Punivers=mean(PVQ_3, PVQ_8, PVQ_19, PVQ_23, PVQ_29, PVQ_40).
compute Pself=mean(PVQ_1, PVQ_11, PVQ_22, PVQ_34).
compute Pstim=mean(PVQ_6, PVQ_15, PVQ_30).
compute Phedon=mean(PVQ_10, PVQ_26, PVQ_37).
compute Pachieve=mean(PVQ_4, PVQ_13, PVQ_24, PVQ_32).
compute Ppower=mean(PVQ_2, PVQ_17, PVQ_39).
compute Psecurity=mean(PVQ_5, PVQ_14, PVQ_21, PVQ_31, PVQ_35).
compute Popen=mean (Pself, Pstim).
compute Pselfenh=mean (Phedon, Pachieve, Ppower).
compute Pselftran=mean (Punivers, Pbenov). 
compute Pconserv=mean (Ptradition, Pconformity, Psecurity).

compute MRAT=mean(PVQ_1 to PVQ_40).


DO REPEAT  s = PVQ_1 to PVQ_40 /
  t = t1 TO t40    .
COMPUTE t = (s - mrat).
END REPEAT.   

* compute mean centered PVQ scores.
compute Mconformity=mean(t7, t16, t28, t36).
compute Mtradition=mean(t9, t20, t25, t38).
compute Mbenov=mean(t12, t18, t27, t33).
compute Munivers=mean(t3, t8, t19, t23, t29, t40).
compute Mself=mean(t1, t11, t22, t34).
compute Mstim=mean(t6, t15, t30).
compute Mhedon=mean(t10, t26, t37).
compute Machieve=mean(t4, t13, t24, t32).
compute Mpower=mean(t2, t17, t39).
compute Msecurity=mean(t5, t14, t21, t31, t35).
compute Mopen=mean (Mself, Mstim).
compute Mselfenh=mean (Mhedon, Machieve, Mpower).
compute Mselftran=mean (Munivers, Mbenov). 
compute Mconserv=mean (Mtradition, Mconformity, Msecurity).
execute. 

Compute reliabilities


RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_2 PVQ_17 PVQ_39
  /SCALE('Power') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_4 PVQ_13 PVQ_24 PVQ_32
  /SCALE('Acheivement') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_10 PVQ_26 PVQ_37
  /SCALE('Hedonism') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_6 PVQ_15 PVQ_30
  /SCALE('Stimulation') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_1 PVQ_11 PVQ_22 PVQ_34
  /SCALE('Self direction') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_3 PVQ_8 PVQ_19 PVQ_23 PVQ_29 PVQ_40
  /SCALE('Universalism') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_12 PVQ_18 PVQ_27 PVQ_33
  /SCALE('Benevolence') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_7 PVQ_16 PVQ_28 PVQ_36
  /SCALE('Conformity') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_9 PVQ_20 PVQ_25 PVQ_38
  /SCALE('Tradition') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_5 PVQ_14 PVQ_21 PVQ_31 PVQ_35
  /SCALE('Security') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_2 PVQ_17  PVQ_39 PVQ_4 PVQ_13 PVQ_24 PVQ_32 PVQ_10 PVQ_26 PVQ_37
  /SCALE('Self Enhancement') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_3 PVQ_8 PVQ_19 PVQ_23 PVQ_29 PVQ_40  PVQ_12 PVQ_18 PVQ_27 PVQ_33
  /SCALE('Self Transcendence') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_1 PVQ_11 PVQ_22 PVQ_34 PVQ_6 PVQ_15 PVQ_30
  /SCALE('Openness to Change') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=PVQ_7 PVQ_16 PVQ_28 PVQ_36 PVQ_5 PVQ_14 PVQ_21 PVQ_31 PVQ_35 PVQ_9 PVQ_20 PVQ_25 PVQ_38
  /SCALE('Conservation') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.
portrait_value_questionnaire_pvq.txt · Last modified: 2018/09/26 03:10 by filination
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