The European Social Survey

Background

The ESS started measuring Values Orientations on a regular annual basis. (More info here)

It's basically comprised of 21 items, reduced from the 40 items in the Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ).

The Items

Scale on “HOW MUCH LIKE YOU IS THIS PERSON?” (should go from 6 to 1, 6 appearing closest to the description): Instructions :

Here we briefly describe some people. Please read each description and think about how much each person is or is not like you then proceed to indicate how much the person in the description is like you.

  • 6 - Very much like me
  • 5 - like me
  • 4 - some- what like me
  • 3 - a little like me
  • 2 - not like me
  • 1 - not like me at all

Male items

  1. Thinking up new ideas and being creative is important to him. He likes to do things in his own original way.
  2. It is important to him to be rich. He wants to have a lot of money and expensive things.
  3. He thinks it is important that every person in the world should be treated equally. He believes everyone should have equal opportunities in life.
  4. It's important to him to show his abilities. He wants people to admire what he does.
  5. It is important to him to live in secure surroundings. He avoids anything that might endanger his safety.
  6. He likes surprises and is always looking for new things to do. He thinks it is important to do lots of different things in life.
  7. He believes that people should do what they're told. He thinks people should follow rules at all times, even when no-one is watching.
  8. It is important to him to listen to people who are different from him. Even when he disagrees with them, he still wants to understand them.
  9. It is important to him to be humble and modest. He tries not to draw attention to himself.
  10. Having a good time is important to him. He likes to “spoil” himself.
  11. It is important to him to make his own decisions about what he does. He likes to be free and not depend on others.
  12. It's very important to him to help the people around him. He wants to care for their well-being.
  13. Being very successful is important to him. He hopes people will recognise his achievements.
  14. It is important to him that the government ensures his safety against all threats. He wants the state to be strong so it can defend its citizens.
  15. He looks for adventures and likes to take risks. He wants to have an exciting life.
  16. It is important to him always to behave properly. He wants to avoid doing anything people would say is wrong.
  17. It is important to him to get respect from others. He wants people to do what he says.
  18. It is important to him to be loyal to his friends. He wants to devote himself to people close to him.
  19. He strongly believes that people should care for nature. Looking after the environment is important to him.
  20. Tradition is important to him. He tries to follow the customs handed down by his religion or his family.
  21. He seeks every chance he can to have fun. It is important to him to do things that give him pleasure.

Female items

  1. Thinking up new ideas and being creative is important to her. She likes to do things in her own original way.
  2. It is important to her to be rich. She wants to have a lot of money and expensive things.
  3. She thinks it is important that every person in the world should be treated equally. She believes everyone should have equal opportunities in life.
  4. It's important to her to show her abilities. She wants people to admire what she does.
  5. It is important to her to live in secure surroundings. She avoids anything that might endanger her safety.
  6. She likes surprises and is always looking for new things to do. She thinks it is important to do lots of different things in life.
  7. She believes that people should do what they're told. She thinks people should follow rules at all times, even when no-one is watching.
  8. It is important to her to listen to people who are different from her. Even when she disagrees with them, she still wants to understand them.
  9. It is important to her to be humble and modest. She tries not to draw attention to herself.
  10. Having a good time is important to her. She likes to “spoil” herself.
  11. It is important to her to make her own decisions about what she does. She likes to be free and not depend on others.
  12. It's very important to her to help the people around her. She wants to care for their well-being.
  13. Being very successful is important to her. She hopes people will recognise her achievements.
  14. It is important to her that the government ensures her safety against all threats. She wants the state to be strong so it can defend its citizens.
  15. She looks for adventures and likes to take risks. She wants to have an exciting life.
  16. It is important to her always to behave properly. She wants to avoid doing anything people would say is wrong.
  17. It is important to her to get respect from others. She wants people to do what she says.
  18. It is important to her to be loyal to her friends. She wants to devote herself to people close to her.
  19. She strongly believes that people should care for nature. Looking after the environment is important to her.
  20. Tradition is important to her. She tries to follow the customs handed down by her religion or her family.
  21. She seeks every chance she can to have fun. It is important to her to do things that give her pleasure.

Coding

(quoted from the ESS coding guide)

Values mean calculation

  • Conformity 7,16
  • Tradition 9,20
  • Benevolence 12,18
  • Universalism 3,8,19
  • Self-Direction 1,11
  • Stimulation 6,15
  • Hedonism 10,21
  • Achievement 4,13
  • Power 2,17
  • Security 5,14

Notes:

The score for each value is the mean of the raw ratings given to the items listed above for that value. For most purposes, it is necessary to make a correction for individual differences in use of the response scale before performing analyses. Below are instructions for making the correction that is appropriate to various types of analyses. Failure to make the necessary scale use correction typically leads to mistaken conclusions!

So read the attached files from ESS round 4 very carefully on how to analyze these values:

SPSS Syntax

* if you ran female and male versions separately, as you should, this loop would combine them.
DO REPEAT  
   s = ESS_BL_m1 to ESS_BL_m21 / 
   t = ESS_BL_f1 to ESS_BL_f21 /
   z = ESS_1 TO ESS_21.
COMPUTE z = (~missing(s))*s+(~missing(t))*t.
END REPEAT.
exec.

* compute ESS scores.
compute Pconformity=mean(ESS_7, ESS_16).
compute Ptradition=mean(ESS_9, ESS_20).
compute Pbenov=mean(ESS_12, ESS_18).
compute Punivers=mean(ESS_3, ESS_8, ESS_19).
compute Pself=mean(ESS_1, ESS_11).
compute Pstim=mean(ESS_6, ESS_15).
compute Phedon=mean(ESS_10, ESS_21).
compute Pachieve=mean(ESS_4, ESS_13).
compute Ppower=mean(ESS_2, ESS_17).
compute Psecurity=mean(ESS_5, ESS_14).
compute Popen=mean (ESS_1, ESS_11, ESS_6, ESS_15).
compute Pselfenh=mean (ESS_10, ESS_21, ESS_4, ESS_13, ESS_2, ESS_17).
compute Pselftran=mean (ESS_3, ESS_8, ESS_19, ESS_12, ESS_18). 
compute Pconserv=mean (ESS_9, ESS_20, ESS_7, ESS_16, ESS_5, ESS_14).

VARIABLE LABELS
Ppower "PowerR"
Pachieve "AchievementR"
Phedon "HedonismR"
Pstim "StimulationR"
Pself "Self DirectionR"
Punivers "UniversalismR"
Pbenov "BenevolenceR"
Ptradition "TraditionR"
Pconformity "ConformityR"
Psecurity "SecurityR"
Popen "Openness to ChangeR"
Pselfenh "Self EnhancementR"
Pselftran "Self TranscendenceR"
Pconserv "ConservationR".

compute MRAT=mean(ESS_1 to ESS_21).

DO REPEAT  s = ESS_1 to ESS_21 /
  t = t1 TO t21    .
COMPUTE t = (s - mrat).
END REPEAT.

compute Mconformity=mean(t7, t16).
compute Mtradition=mean(t9, t20).
compute Mbenov=mean(t12, t18).
compute Munivers=mean(t3, t8, t19).
compute Mself=mean(t1, t11).
compute Mstim=mean(t6, t15).
compute Mhedon=mean(t10, t21).
compute Machieve=mean(t4, t13).
compute Mpower=mean(t2, t17).
compute Msecurity=mean(t5, t14).
compute Mopen=mean (t1, t11, t6, t15).
compute Mselfenh=mean (t10, t21, t4, t13, t2, t17).
compute Mselftran=mean (t3, t8, t19, t12, t18). 
compute Mconserv=mean (t9, t20, t7, t16, t5, t14).

VARIABLE LABELS
Mpower "Power"
Machieve "Achievement"
Mhedon "Hedonism"
Mstim "Stimulation"
Mself "Self Direction"
Munivers "Universalism"
Mbenov "Benevolence"
Mtradition "Tradition"
Mconformity "Conformity"
Msecurity "Security"
Mopen "Openness to Change"
Mselfenh "Self Enhancement"
Mselftran "Self Transcendence"
Mconserv "Conservation".

Or the following ESS adjusted code:

rename var 
(ipcrtiv=v1)  
(imprich=v2)  
(ipeqopt=v3)  
(ipshabt=v4)  
(impsafe=v5)  
(impdiff=v6)  
(ipfrule=v7)  
(ipudrst=v8)  (ipmodst=v9)  
(ipgdtim=v10)  
(impfree=v11)  
(iphlppl=v12)  
(ipsuces=v13)  
(ipstrgv=v14)  
(ipadvnt=v15)  
(ipbhprp=v16)  
(iprspot=v17)  
(iplylfr=v18)  
(impenv=v19)  
(imptrad=v20)  
(impfun=v21). 

use all.

missing values v1 to v21 (7,8,9). 
recode v1 to v21 (1=6) (2=5) (3=4) (4=3) (5=2) (6=1) (7=7) (8=8) (9=9) into sv1 to sv21.
missing values sv1 to sv21 (7,8,9). 

COUNT C1=sv1 to sv21(1).
COUNT C2=sv1 to sv21(2).
COUNT C3=sv1 to sv21(3).
COUNT C4=sv1 to sv21(4).
COUNT C5=sv1 to sv21(5).
COUNT C6=sv1 to sv21(6).
COUNT C8=sv1 to sv21(SYSMIS).
do IF (C1 GE 12 OR C2 GE 12 OR C3 GE 12 OR C4 GE 12
        OR C5 GE 12 OR C6 GE 12 OR C8 GE 1).
compute i=1 .
else .
compute i=2.
end if.
freq var=i.
exe.


 
COMPUTE mrat = MEAN(sv1 to sv21) . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE SE = MEAN(sv5, sv14)  . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE CO = MEAN(sv7, sv16)  . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE TR = MEAN(sv9, sv20)  . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE BE = MEAN(sv12, sv18) . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE UN = MEAN(sv3, sv8, sv19) . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE SD = MEAN(sv1, sv11)  . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE ST = MEAN(sv6, sv15)  . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE HE = MEAN(sv10, sv21) . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE AC = MEAN(sv4, sv13) . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE PO = MEAN(sv2, sv17)  . 
EXECUTE . 

COMPUTE SEcenter = MEAN(sv5, sv14) - mrat . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE COcenter = MEAN(sv7, sv16) - mrat . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE TRcenter = MEAN(sv9, sv20) - mrat . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE BEcenter = MEAN(sv12, sv18) - mrat. 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE UNcenter = MEAN(sv3, sv8, sv19) - mrat . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE SDcenter = MEAN(sv1, sv11) - mrat . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE STcenter = MEAN(sv6, sv15) - mrat . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE HEcenter = MEAN(sv10, sv21) - mrat. 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE ACcenter = MEAN(sv4, sv13) - mrat . 
EXECUTE . 
COMPUTE POcenter = MEAN(sv2, sv17) - mrat . 
EXECUTE . 



compute open=mean (sv1, sv11, sv6, sv15).
compute selfenh=mean (sv10, sv21, sv4, sv13, sv2, sv17).
compute selftran=mean (sv3, sv8, sv19, sv12, sv18). 
compute conserv=mean (sv9, sv20, sv7, sv16, sv5, sv14).
compute openC=mean (sv1, sv11, sv6, sv15)  - mrat .
compute selfenhC=mean (sv10, sv21, sv4, sv13, sv2, sv17)  - mrat .
compute selftranC=mean (sv3, sv8, sv19, sv12, sv18)  - mrat . 
compute conservC=mean (sv9, sv20, sv7, sv16, sv5, sv14)  - mrat .
execute.


missing values gndr (9).
recode gndr (2=0) (1=1) into gender.
missing values yrbrn (7777, 8888, 9999).
compute age=2010-yrbrn.
execute.
missing values yrbrn (7777, 8888, 9999).
compute age=2010-yrbrn.
execute.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_$=(i=2).
VARIABLE LABELS filter_$ 'i=2 (FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMATS filter_$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_$.
EXECUTE.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv5 sv14
  /SCALE('security') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv7 sv16
  /SCALE('conformity') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv9 sv20
  /SCALE('tradition') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv12 sv18
  /SCALE('benevolence') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv3 sv8 sv19
  /SCALE('universalism') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv1 sv11
  /SCALE('selfdirection') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv6 sv15
  /SCALE('stimulation') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv10 sv21
  /SCALE('hedonism') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv4 sv13
  /SCALE('achievement') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv2 sv17
  /SCALE('power') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.



RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv1 sv11 sv6 sv15
  /SCALE('open') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv10 sv21 sv4 sv13 sv2 sv17
  /SCALE('selfenh') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv3 sv8 sv19 sv12 sv18
  /SCALE('selftran') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.

RELIABILITY
  /VARIABLES=sv9 sv20 sv7 sv16 sv5 sv14
  /SCALE('conserv') ALL
  /MODEL=ALPHA.
european_social_survey.txt · Last modified: 2014/05/25 21:07 by filination
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