Empathic Concern Scale
By Davis (1980).
- Davis, M. H. (1980). A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85.
- Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multi-dimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113−126.
From Woltin etal (2011, JESP):
This was the Empathic Concern scale (IRI; Davis, 1980; α=0.80),c ontaining 7 items to be rated on a scale ranging from 1 (does not describe me well) to 5 (describes me very well). Sample items are “When I see someone being taken advantage of, I feel kind of protective toward them” and “Sometimes I don't feel sorry for other people when they are having problems” (reversed). Among a plethora of measures, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980) is the most relevant and frequently used questionnaire for measuring individual differences in empathic tendencies (Baron-Cohen & Wheelwright, 2004; Pulos, Elison, & Lennon, 2004) and shows covariation with activity in the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula/fronto-insular cortex (i.e., regions activated when observing pain in others; Singer et al., 2006).
- When I see someone being taken advantage of, I feel kind of protective toward them.
- When I see someone being treated unfairly, I sometimes don't feel very much pity for them. (R)
- I often have tender, concerned feelings for people less fortunate than me.
- I would describe myself as a pretty soft-hearted person.
- Sometimes I don't feel sorry for other people when they are having problems. (R)
- Other people's misfortunes do not usually disturb me a great deal. (R)
- I am often quite touched by things that I see happen.
recode em_2 em_5 em_6 (1=5) (2=4) (3=3) (4=2) (5=1) into em_2r em_5r em_6r. compute empathic=mean(em_1, emp_2r, em_3, em_4, em_5r,em_6r,emp_7). EXECUTE.